Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) utilized a flux shield around the electrode to keep the weld free of flaws. The video below depicts a monstrous SAW machine that utilizes a granular fusible flux to shield the weld. This flux is a mixture of lime, silica, and other compounds. It protects the weld from the atmosphere as well as providing the extra benefit of not needing eye protection for the operator. This particular process is especially useful on larger welding operations where edge preparation is not manageable. Whether you like welding or not, the video below is mesmerizing to watch.